Intelligent vehicle is a comprehensive system integrating environmental perception, planning and decision-making, multi-level auxiliary driving and other functions. It focuses on the use of computer, modern sensing, information fusion, communication, artificial intelligence and automatic control. It is a typical high-tech complex. At present, the research on intelligent vehicles is mainly committed to improving the safety and comfort of vehicles and providing excellent human vehicle interaction interface. In recent years, intelligent vehicle has become a research hotspot in the field of vehicle engineering and a new driving force for the growth of automobile industry in the world. Many developed countries have incorporated it into their key development of intelligent transportation system.
Chinese name intelligent vehicles foreign name intelligent vehicles classified automatic driving uses computer technology, modern sensing, information fusion and other purposes to replace people to manipulate vehicles and realize automatic driving.
The so-called "intelligent vehicle" means that on the basis of ordinary vehicles, advanced sensors (radar, camera), controllers, actuators and other devices are added to realize intelligent information exchange with people, vehicles and roads through on-board sensing system and information terminal, so that the vehicle has intelligent environmental perception ability and can automatically analyze the safety and dangerous state of vehicle driving, And make the vehicle reach the destination according to people's wishes, and finally realize the purpose of replacing people to operate.
Smart car technology is different from the general self driving technology. It refers to the auto driving realized by using a variety of sensors and intelligent highway technology. Firstly, smart cars have a set of navigation information database, which contains the information of national highways, ordinary highways, urban roads and various service facilities (catering, hotels, gas stations, scenic spots and parking lots); The second is the GPS positioning system, which is used to accurately locate the position of the vehicle, compare it with the data in the road database, and determine the future driving direction; Road condition information system: the traffic management center provides real-time ahead road condition information, such as traffic jam, accident, etc., and changes the driving route in time when necessary; Vehicle anti-collision system, including detection radar, information processing system and driving control system, controls the distance from other vehicles, decelerates or brakes in time when obstacles are detected, and transmits the information to the command center and other vehicles; The emergency alarm system will automatically report to the command center for rescue in case of an accident; The wireless communication system is used for the communication between the vehicle and the command center; The automatic driving system is used to control the ignition, speed and steering of automobiles.
Generally, the operation of the vehicle can be regarded as the control process of a complex nonlinear system with multiple inputs, multiple outputs, complex and changeable input-output relationship and uncertain multiple interference sources. The driver should not only accept the information of the environment such as road, congestion, direction and pedestrians, but also feel the information of the vehicle such as vehicle speed, lateral offset and yaw rate, and then determine the longitudinal actions that should be done through judgment, analysis and decision-making, and compare with his own driving experience. Finally, the body, hands and feet complete the actions of manipulating the vehicle. Therefore, the driver's human factors account for a large proportion in the whole driving process. Once the driver drives for a long time, drives tired and misjudges, it is easy to cause traffic accidents.
Through the research and development of vehicle intelligent technology, we can improve the vehicle control and driving level and ensure the safe, smooth and efficient driving of vehicles. The continuous research and improvement of intelligent vehicle control system is equivalent to extending and expanding the driver's control, visual and sensory functions, and can greatly promote the safety of road traffic. The main feature of intelligent vehicle is to make up for the defects of human factors with technology, so that it can automatically manipulate and drive the vehicle around obstacles and drive along the predetermined road track even in very complex road conditions.
From a specific and realistic point of view, the more mature and predictable functions and systems of intelligent vehicles mainly include intelligent driving system, life service system, safety protection system, location service system and vehicle service system, and all participating enterprises mainly develop around these functional systems.
Among them, each system actually includes some subdivided systems and functions. For example, intelligent driving system is a big concept and the most complex system. It includes: intelligent sensor system, intelligent computer system, auxiliary driving system, intelligent public transportation system, etc; The life service system includes audio-visual entertainment, information query and various biological services; For example, the location service system should not only provide accurate vehicle positioning function, but also enable the vehicle to realize automatic location interworking with other vehicles, so as to achieve the driving purpose of the agreed goal.
With the joint action of these systems, intelligent vehicles are equivalent to installing devices such as TV cameras, electronic computers and automatic control systems with "eyes", "brain" and "feet".
Smart car is a new type of high-tech car being developed. This kind of car does not need people to drive. People just sit comfortably in the car and enjoy the achievements of high technology. Because this kind of car is equipped with TV cameras, electronic computers and automatic control systems equivalent to the "eyes", "brain" and "feet" of the car. These devices are equipped with very complex computer programs, so this kind of car can "think", "judge" and "walk" like people, and can start, accelerate and brake automatically, It can automatically bypass ground obstacles. In complex and changeable situations, its "brain" can adapt to the situation, automatically select the best scheme and command the car to run normally and smoothly.
The "eyes" of the smart car are two TV cameras installed in the right front of the car, 50 cm apart from the top and bottom. There is a light-emitting device in the camera, which can send out a light beam at the same time and meet at a certain distance. Only at this distance can the image of the object be captured and overlapped. "Eyes" can identify obstacles with a platform plane between 5-20 meters in front of the vehicle and a height of more than 10 cm. If there is an obstacle ahead, the "eyes" will send a signal to the "brain". The "brain" will judge whether to pass, bypass, slow down or emergency braking and parking according to the signal and the actual situation at that time and place, select the best scheme, and then instruct the "feet" of the car to stop, retreat or slow down by means of electrical signal. The "foot" of an intelligent car is the steering gear and brake that control the driving of the car.
Driverless intelligent vehicle will be an important symbol of the rapid development of automobile technology in the new century. Fortunately, intelligent vehicles have moved from imagination to practice. With the rapid development of science and technology, we believe that in the near future, we can all enjoy the style of intelligent vehicles.
Therefore, intelligent vehicle is actually a system composed of intelligent vehicle and intelligent highway. The main reason is that the conditions of intelligent highway are not available, but can be solved technically. Before the realization of the goal of intelligent vehicle, in fact, there have been many auxiliary driving systems, which have been widely used in vehicles, such as intelligent wiper, which can automatically sense rain and rainfall, start and stop automatically; Automatic headlamp, which can be turned on automatically in case of insufficient light at dusk; Intelligent air conditioner controls the air volume and temperature of the air conditioner by detecting the temperature of human skin; Intelligent suspension, also known as active suspension, automatically controls the suspension travel according to the road conditions to reduce bumps; The anti dozing system is used to monitor the driver's blink to determine whether he is very tired, stop and alarm when necessary... The wide application of computer technology provides a broad prospect for the intellectualization of vehicles.
1. It giants and automobile enterprises adopt completely different technical routes
BMW once said: "we know more about the parameters of cars than it companies and can ensure the safety of cars while driving. You can allow Apple phones to crash, but never allow BMW cars to crash halfway." this may reflect the different ideas of IT companies and automotive companies. The former relies on the support of powerful background data, network technology and intelligent software, It can well realize the interconnection between automobile and cloud; Automobile enterprises take more into account the practicability and safety of vehicles, and they "stick to" the advantages of the automobile itself.
In August 2012, Google announced that its driverless car had safely driven 300000 miles under the control of a computer. Google driverless cars rely on laser rangefinder, video camera, on-board radar and sensors to obtain environmental perception and recognition ability to ensure that the driving path follows the preset route of Google Street View Map. The device is expensive and costs about 300000 US dollars, which is difficult to be popularized and applied on a large scale. Its essence is in line with the technical characteristics of military intelligent vehicles.
Different from it enterprises, Volvo, Audi, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Toyota, Nissan, Ford and other auto giants have chosen a more practical civil intelligent vehicle technology route. In terms of technical devices, conventional radar (centimeter wave, millimeter wave, ultrasonic), camera (stereo, color, infrared), sensor (radar, laser, ultrasonic), camera, etc. are mainly used for environmental perception and identification, intelligent information interaction is carried out through collaborative driving assistance technology based on Internet of vehicles, and path planning is realized in combination with GPS navigation, And pay more attention to the research and development of mechatronics system dynamics and control technology, which has low cost and is convenient for large-scale popularization and application.
2. The world's auto giants are committed to the R & D and industrialization of "highly automatic driving technology"
The first two levels of "assisted driving technology" and "semi-automatic driving technology" of intelligent vehicles have been widely used, and have become an important means to improve product grade and market competitiveness. The auxiliary driving technology of the first level of intelligent vehicle includes autonomous auxiliary driving technology and cooperative auxiliary driving technology, which can prevent drivers from accidents by warning. Among them, autonomous assisted driving technologies including front collision warning (FCW), lane departure warning (LDW), lane keeping system (LKS), automatic parking assistance (APA), etc. have been widely used, are in the stage of popularization and promotion, and sink from luxury vehicles to class B vehicles. Vehicle assisted driving technology has become a necessary condition for obtaining four-star and five-star e-ncap. In the United States, Europe, Japan and other automobile developed countries and regions, the coordinated driving assistance technology based on vehicle networking V2I / V2V technology is undergoing practical technology development and large-scale test field test. Semi automatic driving technology is gradually applied in high-end vehicles, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), which has been widely used.
The world's auto giants are committed to the practical R & D and industrialization of the third level "highly automatic driving technology", and will soon realize mass production and listing. Volvo will take the lead in mass production of the world's first automatic driving technology - traffic jam assistance system. The system is the integration and extension of adaptive cruise control and lane keeping assistance system. It can make the vehicle automatically follow the vehicle in front when the driving speed is less than 50km / h. In addition, Audi, Cadillac, Nissan and Toyota all plan to launch vehicles with technologies such as automatic steering, acceleration and deceleration, lane guidance, automatic parking and adaptive cruise control. Most of them belong to the third level of intelligent driving technology.
3. There is a long way to go before "all condition driverless"
As the v2x technology of Internet of vehicles covers many industries such as automobile, it, transportation and communication, the relevant technical standards and regulations are still not perfect, and the coordinated assisted driving technology has not been popularized and applied on a large scale. Google's driverless car is also inseparable from human control. It can only travel according to the predetermined procedures. It will be disturbed in fog and snow weather, and the connection is not very good when accelerating, decelerating and turning. In short, the all condition driverless technology is still in the research and development stage, and the final practical test and verification will take a long time.
With the final practical test of v2x technology and the development of unmanned practical technology, it is necessary to further establish and improve v2x technical standards and regulations of vehicle networking and unmanned technical standards and regulations, and gradually build corresponding communication and road infrastructure to build a complete intelligent human, vehicle and road system, It lays a foundation for the large-scale popularization and application of coordinated assisted driving technology and unmanned driving technology.
If driverless cars want to really go on the road, they will also face legal and moral difficulties. On the one hand, when there is a traffic accident between driverless vehicles and manned vehicles, the responsibility attribution and insurance compensation need to be discussed and solved; On the other hand, driverless technology always takes the protection of vehicles and personnel in vehicles as the first priority, which will involve traffic ethics.
4. Intelligent vehicles will have a far-reaching and revolutionary impact on the transportation industry
Smart cars will significantly reduce traffic safety accidents. Automobile traffic accidents largely depend on human factors. Driverless vehicles are accurately controlled by driving computer, which can effectively reduce traffic accidents caused by drunk driving, fatigue driving, speeding and other non-compliance with traffic rules.
Intelligent vehicles will improve vehicle utilization, reduce total vehicle sales and reduce vehicle pollution to the environment. According to the statistics of Google driverless car team, traditional cars are idle most of the time (96%) with low utilization. Driverless cars can be used by people who need them in chronological order, so they can better coordinate the use of vehicles in the family, improve the use efficiency of vehicles, reduce the total consumption of vehicles and effectively reduce carbon emissions. On the other hand, intelligent vehicles can automatically select the optimal path to their destination according to real-time road conditions, with less energy consumption.
Intelligent vehicles will change the current situation of automobile transportation infrastructure and affect the development of automobile transportation related industries. The operation of intelligent vehicles requires supporting transportation infrastructure, and the current infrastructure construction will no longer be applicable. For example, since driverless vehicles sense road obstacles by sensors or communicate with road facilities through 4G / DSRC, guide cables, magnetic sign columns, radar reflective signs, sensors, communication facilities, etc. need to be arranged at intersections, roadsides, curves, etc. Queue driving is also another form of intelligent vehicle, that is, manned leading vehicle followed by driverless vehicle formation. This technology will improve the automation of vehicle transportation.
From the perspective of development, intelligent vehicles will go through two stages. The first stage is the primary stage of intelligent vehicle, that is, assisted driving; The second stage is the ultimate stage of the development of intelligent vehicles, that is, completely replace human driverless. The U.S. highway safety administration defines intelligent vehicles as the following five levels:
(1) No intelligence (level 0): the driver completely controls the original underlying structure of the vehicle at all times, including brake, steering gear, accelerator pedal and starter.
(2) Intellectualization with special functions (Level 1): vehicles at this level have one or more special automatic control functions to prevent accidents by warning, which can be called "auxiliary driving stage". Many technologies at this stage are familiar to us, such as lane departure warning system (LDW), frontal collision warning system (FCW) and blind spot information (BLIS) system.
(3) Intellectualization with multiple functions (Level 2): the vehicle at this level has a system that integrates at least two original control functions, and does not need the driver to control these functions, which can be called "semi-automatic driving stage". At this stage, the vehicle will intelligently judge whether the driver responds to the warning dangerous situation. If not, take actions for the driver, such as emergency automatic brake system (AEB) and emergency Lane Assist System (ELA).
(4) Unmanned driving with restricted conditions (Level 3): this level of vehicle can make the driver completely not control the vehicle in a specific driving traffic environment, and the vehicle can automatically detect the change of the environment to judge whether to return to the driver's driving mode, which can be called "highly automatic driving stage". Google driverless cars are basically at this level.
(5) Unmanned driving under all working conditions (Level 4): the vehicle at this level fully automatically controls the vehicle, detects the traffic environment in the whole process, and can achieve all driving objectives. The driver only needs to provide the destination or input navigation information, and does not need to control the vehicle at any time. It can be called "fully automatic driving stage" or "unmanned driving stage".
China has started the research and development of driverless vehicles since the 1980s. Although there is still some distance compared with foreign countries, it has also achieved phased results. In China, Hefei Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University, University of national defense science and technology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Jilin University, Tongji University, Tianjin military communications college, etc. have all had research projects on driverless vehicles. In particular, Beijing University of technology and Hefei Research Institute of Chinese Academy of sciences have achieved a national leading level in unmanned vehicle technology. They are often invited to participate as a performance team in many domestic unmanned vehicle competitions. In 1992, the University of national defense science and technology successfully developed China's first truly driverless car. A computer automatic driving system composed of a computer and its matching detection sensors and hydraulic control system is installed on a homemade medium-sized minibus so that the vehicle maintains both the original manual driving performance and the computer controlled automatic driving vehicle. In June 2000, the test of the fourth generation driverless vehicle developed by the University of national defense science and technology was successful, with a maximum speed of 76km per hour, setting a domestic record. In July 2003, the Hongqi driverless car Expressway jointly developed by the University of national defense science and technology and FAW of China was successfully tested. The maximum stable speed of autonomous driving was 13okm per hour, and its overall technical performance and indicators have reached the world advanced level.
Thmr-v (Tsinghua mobile robot V) Tsinghua V-type intelligent vehicle is a new generation of intelligent mobile robot developed by the State Key Laboratory of intelligent technology and systems, Department of computer science, Tsinghua University under the auspices of Zhang cymbal, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has the function of facing highways and general roads. The vehicle body is refitted with dodge 7-seat van, equipped with road and obstacle detection system composed of color camera and laser rangefinder; Integrated positioning and navigation system composed of differential GPS, magnetic compass and optical code disk, etc. The two sets of computer systems perform visual processing respectively to complete the functions of information fusion, path planning, behavior and decision control. The four IPC industrial computers complete the functions of laser ranging information processing, positioning information processing, communication management, driving control and so on. The design speed is 80km / h for expressways and 20km / h for general roads. It has been able to carry out road tracking and obstacle avoidance autonomous driving in the unstructured road environment of the campus. Intelligent automobile can reduce driver's fatigue, adapt to complex weather conditions and reduce traffic accidents.
In addition, Xi'an Jiaotong University set up a Springrobot intelligent vehicle experimental platform and successfully completed the demonstration in the "New Silk Road" activity in Dunhuang in October 2005. Tongji University developed a driverless clean energy electric tour bus in 2006, with a maximum speed of 50km / h, which can be used for people's sightseeing. Jilin University and Shenyang Institute of automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences also studied driverless intelligent vehicles earlier and achieved many results.
Since the 1970s, developed countries such as the United States and Europe began to study driverless vehicles, which can be roughly divided into two stages: military use, highway environment and urban environment. In terms of military use, as early as the early 1980s, the US Department of defense funded the research of autonomous land vehicle ALV (autonomous land vehicle) on a large scale.
In the 21st century, in order to promote the research and development of driverless vehicles, DARPA of the U.S. Department of defense began to hold the grand challenge since 2004, which plays a great role in promoting the technical exchange and innovation of intelligent vehicles.
In the second competition in 2005, the organizers only provided a CD 2 hours before the competition, which provided detailed information such as the orientation and altitude of 2935 "road points" on the competition route. The whole track has sharp turns, tunnels, intersections and mountain roads. The competition requires the participating vehicles to complete the whole journey independently. Finally, "Stanley" of Stanford University , won the first place. The computer with six Pentium M processors completes the processing of all programs of "Stanley". When the vehicle moves, four laser sensors, a radar system, a set of stereo cameras and a monocular vision system perceive the surrounding environment.
In 2006, Germany held the European land robot trial (elrob), and the German racing car "Touareg" won the championship. The car looks for the road through image processing, and the surrounding scenery is processed into 3D images. The car uses the optical orientation and ranging system to make navigation decisions based on the collected information, and analyze where pedestrians and trees are. "Touareg" Autonomous driving 90% of the race, but manual driving is still used when passing through key intersections.
American Institute of electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) It is predicted that by the middle of this century, driverless vehicles will account for 75% of the global car ownership, the concept of automobile transportation system will usher in changes, traffic rules and infrastructure will change dramatically with the emergence of driverless vehicles, and intelligent vehicles may subvert the current operation mode of automobile transportation industry. IHS, a famous consulting organization in the automobile industry, released a prediction report, "Realizing driverless intelligent vehicles through computer systems" is catching up with and surpassing pure electric vehicles. It will enter ordinary people's homes around 2025, and the sales volume will reach 11.8 million in 2035, accounting for 9% of the total sales volume of the global automobile market in the same period. Driverless vehicles that can only be seen in science fiction blockbusters in the past seem to be closer and closer to our real life.
1、 Digital innovation related to automobile driving will be mainly led by automobile manufacturers and primary parts suppliers.
Different from the innovation of entertainment interaction, digital innovation related to vehicle driving, such as vehicle safety information display / alarm, cruise control, parking assistant, night vision assistant, etc., mainly involves the core performance of the vehicle, which needs to be connected with core parts such as engine and gearbox, and requires strong experience in automotive products. In addition, this kind of innovation is related to safety Therefore, automobile manufacturers or first-class parts suppliers tend to maintain the leading role in this kind of innovation.
2、 Driverless vehicle technology will be difficult to be popularized and applied on a large scale in the next 5-8 years.
Although Google's driverless system continues to make progress, reliability and laws and regulations will become an important obstacle to this technology. The reliability of automatic vehicle driving system still needs a long time to verify, such as how to ensure that the software system is not infected by viruses in large-scale applications, so as to avoid major traffic accidents. Legally, the global legal systems follow Not up to the pace of technological development. For example, the United States still requires that vehicles must be completely under the control of the driver when driving. At the same time, if such vehicles have an accident, how to identify the responsibility? Is it the driver's responsibility, or should it be the responsibility of automobile manufacturers and software providers? Large-scale promotion and application will not be realized until relevant legal issues are solved.
3、 Automobile manufacturers will still be cautious about on-board applications (APPs).
Vehicle mounted entertainment applications, such as vehicle mounted twitter / microblog and Facebook updates, may affect the driver's attention and cause traffic accidents. Automobile manufacturers will be more cautious about such applications. The U.S. Department of transportation has issued guidance and suggestions, hoping that automobile manufacturers can set the automatic function to automatically stop social media when the car is in motion Use, SMS, dial 10 digit phone, etc. major manufacturers are also strengthening the development of voice controlled apps, which will keep drivers' attention to the road. It can be expected that voice control technology will have a broad application space in cars. Inkanet (an on-board intelligent system) of SAIC Roewe has made a preliminary successful attempt.
4、 It and consumer electronics manufacturers will further improve human-computer interaction technology (HMI), which will improve consumers' expectations of HMI in cars.
Rupert Stadler, CEO of Audi, once said in 2012: "the pace of car development can't keep up with entertainment electronic products. It takes us about 60 months to develop the whole vehicle to the market, during which Apple can launch five generations of iPhones." Take BMW for example. Since the launch of iDrive in 2001, the system has only been updated twice. It is the third generation iDrive. In the future, common technologies of some electronic products, such as voice recognition, text message reading, direct operation, gesture change, human eye action recognition and tracking, will be favored by consumers. For example, enhanced display, head up display, three-dimensional display and proximity to helmet mounted display The case will also be expected to be used in car displays.
5、 The number and scale of the automobile industry is less than 5% of that of the IT consumer goods industry. It is relatively weak in entertainment and interactive technological innovation, but automobile enterprises still have strong negotiation ability.
Another important application of automobile in the digital age is entertainment interaction. Because it electronic enterprises have a more accurate grasp of consumers, and because of the large number of electronic products, they can share huge R & D expenses on a large scale. For example, about 500 million smartphones were shipped worldwide in 2011, while less than 25 million cars equipped with automobile entertainment interaction devices. Therefore , the IT consumer goods industry is ahead of the automobile and parts industry in the innovation ability of entertainment interactive software and hardware products.
6、 Consumers will not be willing to pay extra for in car data information and apps.
In the future, it will be more difficult for manufacturers to charge by providing more information and apps. For example, OnStar pays less than 60% in the second year and less than 50% in the third year in North America. On the one hand, consumers think that relevant information and functions can be obtained through mobile phones and other smart devices, and the cost is much cheaper. On the other hand, consumers The value of various applications has not been fully recognized, and the monthly fee system allows consumers to stop at any time without any punishment.
7、 In the future, only luxury brands can support completely independent entertainment interactive system (cockpit mode), but usually the customer experience is not very good; adopting independent third-party software and hardware business model is the main strategy of non luxury brands.
There are three business strategies for the entertainment information system of automobile manufacturers. The first is what we call the cockpit mode, that is, the automobile manufacturers are completely independent of third-party suppliers. For example, BMW's iDrive, Audi's MMI, etc. the second is the co platform mode, that is, the automobile manufacturers rely on other software suppliers on the system platform. For example Sync provided by Microsoft for Ford and entune technology provided by Toyota. The third is the common scattered product function implantation, such as common Bluetooth technology and MP3 applications. Generally speaking, luxury brands are willing to adopt the first mode, mainly because they have unique technical features to differentiate from other brands. However, the problem is that these luxury brands provide The reputation of the customer experience is not very satisfactory. For example, it takes a lot of time for BMW's iDrive to learn how to use it, and drivers sometimes need to look away at the screen to operate it. Audi's MMI also has a similar problem, and the operation menu is too complex. While manufacturers such as Ford, Toyota and Nissan adopt the second mode to cooperate with professional companies. Human-computer interaction is relatively good, but the sound is not good Control recognition effect needs to be improved.
8、 Automobile manufacturers will further extend along the upstream and downstream of the digital value chain and constantly innovate business models and business types.
BMW recently established iveventures, which is mainly engaged in venture capital business. The investment targets are start-ups in automotive mobile solutions, which further extend their tentacles to the upper reaches of the value chain; GM is cooperating with Bezalel in Israel to focus on how to provide more solutions for the entertainment of rear passengers, especially children; Ford and welldoc are cooperating To launch e-healthmonitoring service; Toyota cooperates with salesforce. Com to launch "toyotafriend" for Toyota owners Social networks have taken a new step downstream of the value chain. It is reasonable to believe that automobile brands have huge consumer groups, automobile enterprises will further tap the business value of these customers, and new business models will emerge one after another. From a technical point of view, innovative applications such as vehicle network, mobile phone and automobile cloud link can also be expected.
Through on-board sensing system, intelligent vehicle itself has active environmental perception ability. In addition, it is also intelligent transportation system (ITS) The core component of intelligent vehicle is a node of the vehicle networking system, which realizes wireless communication and information exchange with people, vehicles, roads, the Internet, etc. Therefore, intelligent vehicle centralizes the use of technologies such as computer, modern sensing, information fusion, pattern recognition, communication and automatic control. It is a combination of environmental perception, planning and decision-making and multi-level driving It is a high-tech complex with interdependent value chain, technology chain and industrial chain.
Value chain of intelligent vehicle
If the value of the Internet of vehicles in vehicle safety, energy conservation and environmental protection is indirect and basic, the core value of intelligent vehicles in improving driving safety and reducing the burden on drivers is direct and obvious, and is conducive to energy conservation and environmental protection. Research shows that in the primary stage of intelligent vehicles, advanced intelligent driving assistance technology can help reduce 50% ~ 80% In the ultimate stage of intelligent vehicle, that is, driverless stage, it can even completely avoid traffic accidents and liberate people from the driving process, which is also the most attractive value charm of intelligent vehicle.
Technology chain of intelligent vehicle
Intelligent technology system is generally composed of three key technologies: sensor, controller and actuator, mainly including:
1) Advanced sensing technology, including detection using machine vision technology, such as laser ranging system, infrared camera technology, and radar (laser, centimeter wave, millimeter wave, ultrasonic) to detect vehicles ahead.
2) Communication technology (GPS, DSRC, 3G / 4G), including the technology necessary for coordinated driving between several intelligent vehicles, vehicle road coordination communication technology, and corresponding vehicle networking communication technology.
3) Lateral control, including lateral control using guide cable, magnetic gas sign column, machine vision technology and radar reflective sign belt.
4) Longitudinal control, including the longitudinal control of measuring workshop distance by using laser radar, millimeter wave radar and machine vision technology, and the longitudinal control of fleet driving by using workshop communication and workshop distance radar.
Industrial chain of intelligent vehicles
Internet of vehicles and intelligent transportation system (ITS) provide intelligent infrastructure, road and network environment for intelligent vehicles. With the improvement of intelligent level of vehicles, in turn, it also requires the synchronous development of Internet of vehicles and intelligent transportation system.
The industrial chain of intelligent vehicles can be described as follows:
1) The industrial chain of the Internet of vehicles includes upstream component and chip manufacturers and midstream manufacturers
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